Python is an object-oriented, interpreted, dynamically-typed and interactive programming language. Its unique syntax distinguishes it from other programming languages like Java, C, and C++. It is an easy-to-learn language that comes with integrated dynamic semantics primarily for the app and web development. Unlike other programming languages, Python allows developers to build web applications with readable, concise and maintainable code.
When it comes to web application development, frontend and backend development, both play a key role in building an amazing business website. In a web development environment, the backend framework consists of languages and certain tools used in server-side programming.
What is a Web Framework?
In 2019- 2020, many web developers will prefer Python over other server-side scripting languages to accelerate web application development. Since Python does not come with built-in features required to speed up custom web application development, the developers need web frameworks or platform to code. Frameworks make the development easier by offering developers a structure for the application or web development.
A web framework is basically a collection of modules or packages that allow developers to create web applications without having to handle low-level details like sockets, protocols or process/thread management. Generally, web frameworks provide support for various activities including interpreting requests, generating responses, storing data and so on. Most importantly, it provides developers with more time to focus on the application’s logic than other less-important aspects.
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What is Full-Stack Web Frameworks for Python?
Python web frameworks are frameworks that help you in cutting off the extra effort and time required in building a web application. While choosing a Python framework, you need to consider the size as well as the complexity of your project or application.
“If you’re developing a large system with different features and requirements, then a full-stack framework will be the right choice for you. On the other hand, if you are working on a small and relatively simple application with few requirements, then you should consider a micro-framework.”
Python provides a wide range of frameworks to developers. Generally, there are two main types of Python frameworks – Full Stack and Non-Full Stack Framework. The full-stack frameworks of Python provide complete support to programmers including essential elements like form generators, form validation, and template layouts.
When it comes to Python frameworks, there is a bunch of full stack options. Given below is the list of top 8 Full-Stack Web Frameworks for Python that will be useful for becoming a professional developer/programmer and improving your technical skill set:
Django is a free and open source Python framework that helps developers build complex code and applications easily and quickly. This high-level framework simplifies web application development by providing various robust features. It has a huge collection of libraries and emphasizes efficiency, less code and the reusability of components. Technically, authentication mechanism, URL routing, database schema migration, and template engine are some of the key features of Django. It implements ORM (Object Relational Mapper) for mapping its objects to database tables. The framework supports multiple databases including MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, and SQLite which means the same coding works with different databases.
The framework evolves constantly to be in line with the latest web/application development trends. Django’s features also help developers to achieve common web development tasks like user authentication, content administration, RSS feeds and sitemap. Due to its amazing features, Django framework is widely used in many high-traffic sites including Pinterest, Instagram, Mozilla, Disqus, Bitbucket and The Washington Times.
Web2py is a free, open-source Python framework for web application development. The framework comes with a debugger, code editor and deployment tool to help you develop and debug the code, as well as test and maintain web applications. Web2py is a cross-platform framework that supports Windows, Mac, Unix/Linux, Google App Engine and various other platforms. It follows the MVC (Model-View-Controller) pattern. The framework simplifies web application development process through a web server, SQL database, and a web-based interface. It allows users to build, edit, deploy and manage web applications through web browsers. In contrast to Django’s ORM (Object Relational Mapper), Web2py uses Database Abstraction Layer (DAL) for mapping its instances to tables, queries, and records. Additionally, you can run Web2py seamlessly on different web servers and operating systems.
The key feature of Web2py is a ticketing system which issues a ticket when an error occurs. This helps the user to track the error and its status. It also has built-in components to manage HTTP requests, responses, sessions and cookies.
CubicWeb is a semantic, free and open-source Python web framework. It is based on a data model which means you need to define the data model to get a functional application. Developers can use CubicWeb as a semantic application framework for Python. Some key features of CubicWeb include security workflow, multiple databases and reusable components called as Cubes. Multiple cubes are combined together to create an object with the help of some configuration files, a database, and a web server. The cubes are designed to be joined in the same way that an engineer snaps together some electronic components in order to make a circuit.
It also supports for Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Web Ontology Language (OWL). The framework embeds Relational Query Language (RQL) to simplify the queries related to data. It is evolving constantly to facilitate the creation/development of modern web applications. It is an end-to-end solution for semantic web app development which promotes reusability, quality, and efficiency.
Django-hotsauce is basically a general-purpose web toolkit that aims at providing tools for speeding up web application development. This is an experimental web framework of Python based on Django and WSGI 1.0 (Web Server Gateway Interface). The framework provides native bindings for Django, Schevo DBMS (Durus, ZODB) and LibAuthkit projects. Some of the key features of Django-hotsauce framework include full-stack and scalable web application development toolkit, secure environment for programming under Linux systems, OpenSSL ready, extensible testing environment as well as SQLAlchemy and Elixir support.
Grok framework is developed based on Zope toolkit for providing a more agile development experience to developers by focusing on convention over configuration and DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself). It is an open-source framework built to speed up the app development process. The developers can select from a wide range of community and standalone libraries according to the project needs. Grok’s user interface is similar to other full-stack frameworks like Pylons and TurboGears. The component architecture of Grok assists developers to reduce the complexity of development by taking advantage of views, content objects and controller. Grok also provides the building blocks and other necessary resources required to build custom web applications accordingly to business needs.
Zope2 is one of the oldest web application development frameworks of Python and a member of a growing family of Zope framework. It is a web framework as well as a general-purpose web application server. Zope2 allows developers/programmers of different skill levels to develop web applications. Each version of Zope technology (including Zope 1, Zope 2 and Zope 3) features ZODB, an object database of Python. This framework is compatible with Python’s 2.x version. Primarily used for CMS (Content Management Systems), Zope 2 has been a choice of many companies including The Drug Company, Panda Express, and Technologijos. Other famous Zope-based Web applications are Plone, Silva, and Launchpad.
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On the whole, there are various Python web development frameworks whose popularity and demand will remain intact in 2019-2020. But each framework has its pros and cons and every programmer/developer has diverse coding styles and preferences. The developers will evaluate each framework according to the needs of individual projects. Therefore, the choice of Python web development framework will change from one developer to another in 2019-2020.
The above-given frameworks are the best and widely used full-stack backend web application development frameworks of Python for your next project. Due to the constant changes in the technical world, the popularity of these frameworks is increasing according to the modern web application development scenario.